Japanese Infrastructure Development in Thilawa / MyanmarJoin this project
Since Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA) has started as war reparations to Myanmar and other Asian countries in 1954, it has gradually expanded along with Japanese economic growth, and became one of the largest scales in the world since 1991. On the one hand, the Japanese government is proud of its contribution to the development of the economic and industrial infrastructure of the developing countries as one of the top aid providers (Japanese MoFA 2004). On the other hand, however, being the top aid donor in 1990s meant for Japanese government to be constantly watched and often criticized by aid recipient countries as well as local people and their supporters and media in Japan in terms of aid effectiveness. For example, the critiques said that many of its projects had been conducted for national benefits, not for the interest of global citizens (e.g. Fuke and Fujibayashi (eds.) 1999).