South-South Cooperation and Thailand

Best Practice of Thailand’s Development Cooperation Project in Laos
The new phase of aid is shaped by increasing aid flows from non-traditional donors (non OECD DAC members); such as, Brazil, South Africa, India, Thailand, etc. These non traditional providers, while contribute to the strength of south-south cooperation through their various aid schemes, are questioned regarding their different aid process, in particular the effectiveness of aid. It is the fact south-south cooperation is often different from traditional aid schemes in terms of both objectives and approach, namely it is the combination of aid, trade, security, diplomacy, and economic development.
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Characterizing Triangular Cooperation in Southeast Asia: Comparing the Thai-GermanLao and Thai-GermanVietnamese Partnerships
New actors and cross-regional modalities have continued to enrich the understanding and practices of development cooperation. With the emergence of new providers within the global aid landscape there is a need to explore definitional and operational changes in the system with regards to how resources are utilized and diversified. This research project characterizes the hybrid model of development cooperation in the Greater Mekong Sub-region and investigate the roles of Thailand as an emerging donor and Germany as a resource provider under the Trilateral Cooperation Programme. The paper discusses how organizational strategies and comparative advantages of each partner contributed to the effectiveness of the Thai-GermanLao Trilateral Cooperation on Strengthening Lao National Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in Lao PDR and the Thai-German-Vietnamese trilateral cooperation on Strengthening Cooperative Management in Western Highland and Central Region of Vietnam. The results suggest that the incentive mechanisms to steer the action of stakeholders under the TrC project in Lao PDR differ from that of Vietnam. The level of competitiveness witnessed in Lao PDR has been a reflection of the coercive nature of policy transfer as opposed to the voluntary knowledge assets transfer that underpin the innovation and performance improvement in Vietnamese case. While Lao Gap TrC highlights the implementation of learned/transferred knowledge to develop a set of skills, Vietnam SMEs Coop TrC emphasizes the adaptation and application of learned skills to facilitate and support others for effective execution. These results have significant implication in regards to the sustainability of the proposed development solutions. Lessons learned highlight the needs to address absorptive capacity of target beneficiaries, the importance of joint initiative, country ownership, participatory policymaking, harmonization processes, and result-based management in all stages of the cooperation.
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Lesson Learned from JICA’s Experience of Triangular Cooperation with Thailand
As long as we learn from the public information, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is one of the development agencies that strongly promote south-south cooperation or triangular cooperation (JICA 2012, 2009, JICA Brazil office 2011). It proudly says that it is JICA that first formalized the structure of south-south cooperation in the world in 1974, by providing a training course for Laotian sericulturists in silkworm factory in Thailand (Yamamoto 2009). As an example to show JICA‟s strong support for them, JICA co-hosted “high-level conference on south-south cooperation and triangular cooperation” in Washington D.C. in the end of 2009, and proposed to establishment of platform or evaluation method (JICA 2009). JICA also won the UN South-South Cooperation Award in 2012 with its individual projects being appreciated. As a concrete framework to implement JICA‟s Triangular Cooperation with Thailand toward “less-developed” countries in Southeast Asia, JICA-ASEAN Regional Cooperation Meeting (JARCOM) was established in 2002. It was expected to provide a forum to discuss about the demand and the supply of the development projects among Southeast countries. It then reformed to Japan-Southeast Asian Meeting for South-South Cooperation (J-SEAM), whose objective is to form and well-manage the south-south technical assistance projects in Southeast Asia, although it was dissolved in 2011. It was dissolved because it became unnecessary thanks to individual state‟s capacity improvement. While JICA often appeals the positive aspects of its triangular cooperation, Professor Ishii, who has both practical and academic experience in international 2 development field, emphasizes more negative aspects of triangular cooperation by JICA in Southeast Asia (Ishii 2016). However, Ishii‟s report is written in Japanese. In addition, there are already several copies of reports written about JICA‟s triangular cooperation in Japanese by insiders and outsiders, practitioners and academics. Therefore, in this mini project under Network of International Development Cooperation (NIDC), I would like to review and summarize several related articles and reports on triangular project mostly written in Japanese, so as to provide the lesson learned from JICA‟s experience of triangular cooperation with Thailand toward other Southeast Asian countries.
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Public-Private Partnership under the South-South Cooperation
Official Development Assistance (ODA) is a framework with clearly defined goals, instruments, donors, and effective spending resources. Development assistant goes to countries and multilateral institutions in the ODA recipient list provided by the development assistance committee (DAC). Funding from donor countries must be provided by state and government agencies and aim to promote economic development and welfare in order to tackle poverty in developing countries. However, the definition of ODA is problematic as the global development agenda has covered broader issues, in particular climate change, security, and migration as well as development cooperation becoming more complex. More actors are involved in the cooperation, especially private sector and civil society. Additionally, new forms of financing development assistance and instruments of development cooperation are emerging and increasingly used (Ministry of Finance, the Netherlands, 2013; OEDC/UNDP, 2014).
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S-S-C indicators via Effective practice in Thailand- Vietnam Bilateral Partnership
South-South Cooperation, usually defined as the exchange of resources, technology and knowledge between developing countries, has been going on for more than 50 years. The South-South agenda has seen a remarkable surge in recent years as developing countries are acquiring more voice and influence. Today, South-South Cooperation involves a complex mosaic of governmental and nongovernmental actors, and instruments ranging from one-off activities to budget support and largescale loans. And, although difficult to quantify in financial figures, it is clear that technical cooperation and knowledge exchange have become very prominent among the growing group of middle-income countries.As the most populous and fastest growing continent, South-South Cooperation is thriving in Asia. Asia’s economies have expanded; they have also become more closely integrated through trade, investment, and financial flows.
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Thailand’s Development Assistance to Cambodia: Bilateral Partnership
The study will take project of national road no. 67 Construction (AnglongVeng-Siam Reap) for reviewing on Loan aid. The NEDA provided loan for national road construction project.
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The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Myanmar
This article investigates the relationship between the Myanmar government and non- governmental organizations in international relief and humanitarian ground since 1988, when Myanmar has moved from planned economy. As these nongovernmental organizations have become instruments to become as the supporting factors in government's response to disasters, crises and restructuring in socioeconomic situations. Comparing with neighboring countries, questions have grown about donor - partner relationship, Myanmar is said to have been inadequate. Current situation, total numbers of NGOs and INGO in Myanmar from 1991 to 2015 was only 43 organizations. Other neighboring countries of Myanmar has larger number than this Myanmar figure. Why have NGO and INGO levels in Myanmar been so low?
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